A concentrated fragrance material of a natural product, such as a flower (jasmine or rose). Processed by means of enfleurage, alcohol extraction or steam distillation.
A combination of raw materials blended together to find the proper balance and effect a perfumer desires when creating a fragrance. When the materials are properly mixed, they are said to be in accordance with each other.
A balanced complex of 3 or 4 notes that loose their individual identity to create a completely new unified odor impression. Analogous to the musical terminology where several notes are combined to create a single tone that is part of a complete composition.
This is often referred to as the “modern” group since at one time the various aliphatic aldehydes used to create this group were actually “modern” in the time sense of the word. Basically, an aldehydic fragrance may be one to which aldehydes have been added because of their brilliance and incisive effect. Characteristics of all aldehydic fragrances are their brilliant and exciting top note. The classic examples of this would be Chanel # 5 and White Linen.
A fragrance accord designed to impart fullness, sweetness and warmth to a compound. Enhances the dry down of the fragrance and is of particular importance to the oriental type fragrance.
A note of animal origin derived from the natural isolates of civet, castoreum or musk. These materials, plus some man-made synthetics have been used to demonstrate this subtle yet penetrating odor quality. An important note in the development of many fragrances used to impart richness and fullness to compositions. A good example of fragrances with heavy animal notes would be Beverly Hills Gale Hayman, and Chimere.
The medical term describing the total absence of the sense of smell, i.e., the inability to detect or recognize any vapor. It can occur temporarily after taking antibiotics and other drugs, or the result of an infection, influenza-like illness, head injury, congenital abnormality or can be associated with severe allergic rhinitis.
Among the Perfumer’s primary tools, some synthetic aroma chemicals duplicate chemicals that naturally occur in nature. These are classified as nature identical aroma chemicals. The second category of aroma chemicals are those isolated from natural origins, and a third category are the synthetic aroma chemicals not known to be found in nature but contribute a unique odor value to help broaden a Perfumer’s library of tools.
A science conceived, named and supported by the Olfactory Research Fund which is dedicated to the study of the inter-relationship of psychology and the latest in fragrance technology to transmit through odor a variety of specific feelings… relaxation, exhilaration, sensuality, happiness and achievement… directly to the right side of the brain – thelimbic system which is the seat of emotions, memory, creativity and sensuality. Aroma-Cology is a service mark of the Olfactory Research Fund.
The therapeutic use of pure essential oils and herbs in body massage, the rest of which is described by proponents as “healing, beautifying and soothing” the body and mind, has its roots in the folk medicine practiced in primitive cultures. The history of aromatherapy stretches as far back as 6,000 years ago in ancient Egypt. It wasn’t until the 1920’s, however, when the term was actually coined by a French chemist, R.M. Gattefosse.
The result of the blending of all perfumery components into one harmonious sensory experience.
A sweet fragrance accord that provides rich, warm, resinous and very tenacious qualities to most compounds. Also, described as woodiness associated with fresh-cut, well-seasoned non-coniferous wood, as for example, maple. The balsamic effect is most commonly found in Oriental fragrances and powder perfumes.
BASE (dry down)
Base notes are made up of the underlying tones of the fragrance, and are responsible for its lasting qualities. The ingredients used in base notes are often referred to as the “fixatives.”
A mixture of natural and/or synthetic ingredients.
The heart or main part of the fragrance. The characteristic note when the most volatile components have lost their dominance and all of the
components of the fragrance come into play. Body in perfumery is analogous to a symphony orchestra playing with the full complements of instruments.
Also called the dry down of the fragrance. This note contains the fixatives of the fragrance that impart the long lasting qualities.
An odor resembling camphor to some degree. The essential oil spike lavender is a good example of a common aromatic material with a camphorous note.
A recognizable effect obtained in a fragrance. An effect that should be a faithful translation of the generating concept.
A fragrance accord blend of aldehydes built upon a citrus (Bergamot) and mossy base (Oakmoss). This classical accord has been widely used in both men’s and women’s fragrances.
Most typically found in the top note of the fragrance composition and may contain: bergamot, grapefruit, lemon, lime, mandarin orange, petitgrain, and/or tangerine.
A classic fragrance can be considered in the same vein as classic literature or architecture.A fragrance that has been widely accepted by generation after generation and has enjoyed popularity for a minimum of 15 years.
A term derived from the French name of the German city of Cologne, where this product was allegedly first popularized. Originally, it was the condensate from the steam distillation of a water-alcohol infusion of citrus peels (bergamot, lemon, orange), herbs, leaves (rosemary, thyme, lavender), and flower petals (rose, orange blossom). With the modern advent of a wide selection of other essential oils and synthetics, this cologne has been considerably altered.
Today, cologne is usually a diluted version of a perfume using diluted alcohol as its solvent and contains from 3-10% fragrance oil in the finished product. A less expensive fragrance oil is generally used for cologne than for perfume.
After-shave lotions and toilet waters are technically considered to be in the cologne category. After-shave lotions usually contain 2-3% fragrance oil, while toilet waters sometimes utilize as much as 15% fragrance oil.
A term reserved for those fragrances which are basically citrus blends and do not have a perfume parent. Modern colognes, however, are often a lighter extension of the perfume.
Unlike women’s colognes, it is similar to the concentration of toilet water, eau de Parfum, and in some instances perfume.
The lightest form of fragrance with a low concentration of perfume oils mixed with diluted alcohol.
A compound is a completed perfume formulation ready to be used in a product such as perfume, toilet water, etc. The terms “composition” and
compound are interchangeable.
During the process of extraction, flowers are subjected to solvents of various types by which the oils are removed. What remains is a very concentrated oil known as a “concrete.” The concrete is usually a solid, waxy substance representing the closest odor duplication of the flower from which is derived. Since the perfumer cannot use the concrete as such, it is further processed into absolutes that have already been described.
Cone-baring trees and shrubs.